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Anaerobic digestion is the natural process in which microorganisms break down organic matter in the absence of air (an anaerobic environment). Anaerobic digestion creates usable products such as biogas and digested material.
Anaerobic digesters are built systems (lagoons or tanks) where anaerobic digestion takes place. Anaerobic digesters manage organic wastes, produce gas and digested materials, minimize odors, reduce pathogens, and reduce solid wastes. Anaerobic digesters are also called “anaerobic digestion systems”, “biodigesters” or simply “digesters”.
Co-digestion happens when more than one type of organic material is digested at the same time. Digesters are often built for a single purpose. For example, a farmer may build an anaerobic digester to handle cow manure. If the farmer also takes food waste from a local grocery store and puts the food waste in the digester along with the cow manure, it is called co-digestion.
Biogas is the gas produced when bacteria break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It is made up of mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), with small amounts of water vapor, particulates, and other gasses, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Biogas can be processed and used for a variety of energy needs, such as the generation of heat, power and fuel.
Inside an anaerobic digester, naturally occurring microorganisms grow in the tank’s oxygen-free environment and break down (digest) the organic matter. As the organic matter decomposes, biogas is created. Once established in a digester, microorganisms will continue to break down organic materials and release biogas in the right conditions. The microorganisms need a steady supply of feedstock and a comfortable environment - warm temperatures, neutral acidity and no oxygen.
Digested material is the solid and liquid material that remains at the end of the anaerobic digestion process. Digested material contains valuable nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) and organic carbon. Typically, raw digested material is processed into a wide variety of products like fertilizer, compost, soil amendments or animal bedding. Factors influencing what products are made include the makeup of the initial feedstocks and local markets. These co-products can be sold to agricultural, commercial and residential customers.
Many types of organic material can be used as feedstock to produce biogas. Animal manures, wastewater solids, food scraps, restaurant fats, oils, and greases, and by-products from food and beverage production are some commonly digested materials. An anaerobic digester may be built for a single material or a combination of them. However, the feedstocks must be properly controlled to ensure that the system remains healthy and functioning.
Yes, biogas is a renewable energy source. It is produced from natural resources that are replenished in short periods of time.
Yes, biogas can replace fossil fuels for the production of heat, power and fuel. With additional processing, biogas becomes renewable natural gas that can be used in the same place as fossil fuels.
Biogas is made up of methane and carbon dioxide, which are powerful greenhouse gases. Anaerobic digesters are designed to capture these gases so they do not escape to the atmosphere. In most cases, the feedstocks used in digesters would have released methane directly as they decomposed in lagoons or landfills. In addition, using biogas for heat or electricity means that less energy needs to be produced by power plants. This reduces the amount of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels.
Anaerobic digesters are usually built on sites that have a steady supply of organic materials and need energy or heat. Common examples include farms, water resource recovery facilities, food production facilities, and landfills. Also, stand-alone digesters can be built in a central location to accept organics from multiple businesses.
Landfill gas is a type of biogas. Both can be converted to renewable energy (electricity or fuel).
Biogas and natural gas have essentially the same components. But, the two gasses are obtained in different ways. Biogas is produced when readily available organic materials (e.g., manure or food waste) break down. Natural gas is produced when ancient plants, tiny sea animals, and other organic materials break down in hard to access locations. Usually, natural gas has to be extracted from underground reservoirs. Natural gas can also be derived from petroleum refining.
Biogas contains a small amount of hydrogen sulfide, which has a rotten-egg odor. However, anaerobic digesters are completely enclosed and biogas is not released directly to the air. Digesters are commonly installed at farms to reduce odors. What comes out of a digester after processing is much less odorous than the feedstocks that go into digesters.
A properly designed and operated system is very safe. Anaerobic digesters are designed to meet local and national codes for safety. However, they do produce methane and hydrogen sulfide. These gases both burn easily and are harmful to inhale, so it is essential to use proper gas-handling precautions. It is also important for plant operators to be well trained and follow established operational procedures
Westgate Home Medical Equipment209 West Main StreetHyannis, MA 02601
With the amount of snowfall on Nantucket, as long as panels are on a roof or high enough off the ground for ground-mounted systems, snow should not need to be removed. The solar panels do a good job of naturally melting any snow that doesn’t slide off of them.
Cleaning solar panels is not regularly needed. A good rain should clean them off with no problem. If they do get dirty enough to affect their efficiency, they can be cleaned with a non-abrasive wash just like you would clean your windows.
As long as your solar PV system is under warranty, replacement parts should be of no cost to you. With modern solar technologies systems rarely have issues with components, so any maintenance should be uncommon.
If installed properly, roof mounted systems will not cause roof damage that could potentially cause leaks.
Technology is constantly evolving, and solar panels will inevitably become more efficient in the future. Current solar technology is efficient enough for people to greatly reduce their electric bills to a few dollars a month to even no cost per month.
The solar panels themselves have a manufacturer warranty generally around 20-25 years, while Installers have a labor warranty around 5 years. Both of these warranties are dependent on manufacturer and installer and need to be taken into consideration when investing in a solar PV system.
Currently there is a federal tax rebate of 30% off of your system cost.
There is a state rebate of 15% up to $1000.
There is a Nantucket Town SOLAR Rebate of $2500.
Quarterly net-metering payments called SRECS.
Average payback period of a system on Nantucket is around 6.5 years. This means that on average the solar PV system will pay for itself in, on average, around 6.5 years.
Like many other things on Nantucket, it is more expensive to install solar PV on Nantucket due to cost of transportation of materials and additional labor costs. The $2500 SOLAR Rebate was created to help alleviate these extra cost. But even though the system is more expensive, it is still an economically viable option to saving money.
Although Nantucket may not get as much sun as mainland areas, these systems do generate enough electricity for owners to greatly reduce their electric bills without having to install more expensive systems.
The optimal roof orientation for installing solar PV is 180 degrees due south. Roof pitch can be accounted for with the system mounting brackets. Although asphalt shingles are prefered when installing roof mounted systems, roofs with cedar shingles can still be used.
Many installers use smart apps that communicate to your solar PV system through wifi or ethernet that allow you to manage and track your system output in real time.
Rarely can solar panels be installed inside the Historic Cores on Nantucket. Like any home improvement inside the Historic Cores, projects need to contribute to keeping these zones historically accurate. Systems can’t be visible from any view, and can’t impact the historical integrity of the building.
Yes, as long as the solar panels are visibly hidden from public view or are considered to not make a negative visual impact, they can be installed on your property.
Yes, you do need HDC approval before installing solar PV outside of a Historic Core, but they are more lenient when it comes to the aesthetics of the system, as long as it is not in view of a public way.
It's recommended that you talk to your local Homeowners Association before talking to the HDC when looking to install solar PV. You won’t have to fill out and pay for an application before finding out whether or not you are allowed to install solar PV where you live.
When looking to install a system on island it is important to talk to multiple installers to get a system and company that works well for your situation. Make sure to consider the overall cost of the system, the expected payback period, system and labor warranties, and how well they communicate.
By ferry boat or airplane…There is no bridge.
The island has a year round population of around 11,000. In July and August the population swells to around 50,000 or more.
The application is available online. Hard copy resumes are available at the Town and County Building, in the Human Resources Office:
16 Broad St.
Nantucket, MA 02554
Yes, anyone can order a map. Most of our data is available to the public on our interactive WebGIS site, and printable versions are available through the department. The GIS department can also create larger format maps.
To order a map, you can call the Assessor's Office at 508-228-7211 or the GIS office at (508) 228-7200 x 7003
2 Fairgrounds Rd.
Map price is determined by the size, please call us at 508-228-7211 for more information.
The property information updated nightly from the Assessor’s database.
You may pay for your beach permit online at the town's online payments page or you can stop by the Police Department, Lobby Records Window, between Monday and Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (June 15-September 1 everyday 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.), located at:
4 Fairgrounds Road
Cold patch is also very expensive. It costs approximately $200/ton and it also has constraints: 1) it requires special handling, 2) needs to be kept covered, 3) it must be stored under cover to retain its adhesive properties, and 4) it tends to leak oils at certain temperatures. As a result, the Town does not “just cold patch everything" but rather applies this solution where and when appropriate.
A pothole fixer is a specialized massive infrared panel that is lowered onto the street; it heats the asphalt around the pothole prior to filling it, ensuring that the new material bonds strongly to the surrounding road, preventing repeated repairs.
1. Use the SeeClickFix mobile phone app, or2. Call DPW at 508-228-7244 and a traceable work order will be created, or3. Report via this website.
All of those options are great and DPW is taking notes as they drive around to make sure they know where potholes are, too.
The landfill fees are been reviewed and will be published in January 2020.
All land transfers and any transfer of interest, including leases (of 30 years or more including extensions) must be processed through the Land Bank prior to being recorded in our office. Visit their website or call their office at 508-228-7240.
Visit the Registry of Deeds at 16 Broad Street, Nantucket MA. The Registry is open for research Monday through Friday, 8am – 4pm.
If you cannot make it to the Registry, you may send a request by mail.
The request must include:
A cover letter with the book and page or Registered Land document number of the deed or document.
A check made out to the “Nantucket Registry of Deeds” for the exact amount of the transaction.
The cost for copies is $1.00 per page. You may call the Registry at 508-228-7250 if you are unsure of the number of pages in your deed or document.
A self-addressed, stamped envelope for the return of the deed or document to you.
Mail To: Nantucket Registry of Deeds16 Broad Street Nantucket MA 02554
You can locate and print a non-certified copy of deeds and documents online for free by clicking here. Please note the search criteria is automatically set to the Recorded Land Name Search. If your property is Registered Land, click on Search Criteria in the top left corner and click “Registered Land (Land Court) – Name Search”*
* Please note the masslandrecords.com website uses pop-up windows to view, print, and download documents. Your pop-up blocker must be turned off. This is not something our office can help you with.
Click here for a guide on how to use the online database.Important things to remember:
Instructions for Online Orders
When placing an order online, please note the following:
The Registry is open Monday through Friday;
Recording hours are from 8am – 12pm and 1pm – 3:45pm.
Research hours are from 8am -4pm.
Please click here for a complete list of our current fees.
In Massachusetts an Excise Stamp Tax (MGL c.64D, s.1) shall apply to deeds, instruments or writings whereby any lands, tenements or other realty sold shall be granted, assigned, transferred or otherwise conveyed to, or vested in, the purchaser...when the consideration of the interest or property conveyed, exclusive of the value of any lien or encumbrance remaining thereon at the time of sale. There is no excise tax due where the consideration stated is less than $100.00.
The excise tax rate is $4.56 per $1000.00 of consideration, rounded up to the nearest $500. For example: if a consideration is stated as $1,546,300.00, then the deeds excise is calculated using $1,546,500.00 and the total fee would be $7,052.04.
Please note: a separate check is required for excise tax payments.
No. Many close for the winter. But, there are always restaurants open in the off-season.
Yes. A weekly list is available to take from the office or on the website.